diabetes and pregnancy

Managing gestational diabetes

gestational diabetes

The 12th to the 16th of February is Pregnancy Awareness Week, an excellent opportunity to discuss one of the most common forms of diabetes: gestational diabetes. It is estimated that between 3% and 20% of pregnant women develop gestational diabetes, depending on their risk factors. We asked Pick n Pay’s dietician Leanne Kiezer for some helpful tips on gestational diabetes.

All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes between 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. Women who are at high risk for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes should be screened earlier than 20 weeks of pregnancy. This information, compiled by Diabetes Canada, helps to clarify some of the common myths and misconceptions around gestational diabetes, as well as offering some tips for its management.

What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Your body cannot produce enough insulin to handle the effects of a growing baby and changing hormone levels. Insulin helps your body to control the level of glucose (sugar) in your blood. If your body cannot produce enough insulin, your blood sugar levels will rise.

The good news

  • Your baby will not be born with diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes can be managed and you can expect to have a happy, healthy baby.

What does gestational diabetes mean for my baby?

If left undiagnosed or untreated, gestational diabetes can lead to high blood sugar levels. This increases the risk that your baby will weigh more than 4kg (9lbs) and will have a difficult delivery. Gestational diabetes can also increase the risk of your baby becoming overweight and developing Type 2 diabetes in the future. It is important to breastfeed immediately after delivery for at least four months, if you can, to help reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes for your baby.

What does gestational diabetes mean for me?

A diagnosis of gestational diabetes means you will be working closely with your health-care team to manage your blood sugar levels and keep them in the target range. This will help you avoid complications in labour and delivery. After your baby is born, blood sugar levels will usually return to normal. However, you are at greater risk for gestational diabetes in your next pregnancy and of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future. Achieving a healthy weight in the normal BMI range can help reduce this risk.

Risk factors for gestational diabetes

Being:

  • 35 years of age or older
  • From a high-risk group (African, Arab, Asian, Hispanic, Indigenous, or South Asian descent)

Using:

  • Corticosteroid medication

Having:

  • Being:
  • 35 years of age or older
  • From a high-risk group (African, Arab, Asian, Hispanic, Indigenous, or South Asian descent)
  • Using:
  • Corticosteroid medication
  • Having:
  • Given birth to a baby that weighed more than 4kg
  • Prediabetes
  • Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
  • Obesity (BMI of 30kg/m2 or higher)
  • A parent, brother or sister with Type 2 diabetes
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or acanthosis nigricans (darkened patches of skin)

How is gestational diabetes managed?

Choose a healthy diet
Ask your doctor to refer you to a registered dietitian to learn about healthy eating during pregnancy. Try eating low-glycemic index foods (e.g. whole grains, legumes), spread over three meals and two snacks to help manage your blood sugar.

Achieve a normal pregnancy weight gain
The amount of weight you gain will vary depending on your weight before your pregnancy. Weight loss is not recommended. Talk to your health-care provider about appropriate weight gain for you.

Be physically active
Regular physical activity can help control your blood sugar levels. It can also help you:

  1. Boost your energy
  2. Sleep better
  3. Reduce stress
  4. Reduce pregnancy discomfort
  5. Prepare for childbirth
  6. Get your body back faster after childbirth
    Talk to your health-care provider about the right type and amount of activity for you.

Check your blood sugar at home
Checking and tracking your blood sugar with a blood glucose meter will help you and your health-care team manage your gestational diabetes.

Take medication, if needed
Sometimes healthy eating and physical activity are not enough to manage blood sugar levels and your health-care provider may recommend insulin injections or pills for the duration of your pregnancy. Medication will help keep your blood sugar level within your target range. This will help to keep you and your baby in good health.

Your health-care team can answer your questions and support you through this important time in your life. Your team may include your doctor, nurse and dietitian, but remember: the most important member of your health-care team is you!

Pick n Pay Health Hotline

Did you know that Pick n Pay employs a registered dietitian to provide free food and nutrition-related advice to the public? Contact Leanne via the Health Hotline on 0800 11 22 88 or email her directly on
healthhotline@pnp.co.za to start your nutrition conversation.

Photo by Ashton Mullins on Unsplash

10 Fast facts about pre-eclampsia

Not sure exactly what pre-eclampsia is or how to spot it? Here’s what to watch out for.

  1. Pre-eclampsia is high blood pressure during pregnancy that causes hypertension.
  2. It is picked up by elevated proteins in the urine (which leak from the kidneys).
  3. Women with diabetes are at higher risk of pre-eclampsia.
  4. It usually starts after the 20th week of pregnancy and improves 6 weeks after birth.
  5. It must be closely monitored as it can result in an early delivery.
  6. If your blood pressure is above 120/80 you need to see a doctor.
  7. Type 1 diabetics are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop pre-eclampsia than those without diabetes.
  8. Your risk of developing pre-eclampsia is higher if you are obese or have a maternal history of high blood pressure.
  9. Symptoms include: severe headaches, problems with vision, abdominal pain, vomiting, swelling, not feeling your baby’s movement, and feeling ill. Treatment is medication or early delivery.
  10. Pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension during pregnancy can increase a woman’s risk of developing Type 2 diabetes up to 18 times.