diabetes and gum disease
Diabetes changes oral microbiome that promotes gum disease
In a fascinating study on the relationship between diabetes and periodontal (or gum) disease, Janet Southerland and colleagues note that hyperglycemia leads to the formation of specific proteins and fats that promote inflammatory responses in the mouth. “Diabetes is an important risk factor for more severe and progressive periodontitis, infection or lesions resulting in the destruction of tissues and supporting bone that form the attachment around the tooth.” A new study, however, has discovered the reason why. It’s all got to do with the way that diabetes changes the oral microbiome – the community of microbial residents that lives in the mouth. Therefore, regular brushing and flossing, attention to one’s diet, and dental visits are key.
Shifting oral biomes
The study, published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, compared the gum health of mice with and without diabetes, finding that the microbiome of hyperglycemic mice changed. Bacteria diversity became lower, and the result was gum disease, including a loss of bone supporting the teeth. These mice also had higher levels of IL-17, a molecule involved in the immune response and inflammation. The researchers were able to reduce bone loss in affected mice through the use of an IL-17 antibody. Currently, however, this treatment is not likely to be useful for humans. Researchers therefore insisted on blood sugar control and good oral hygiene for human beings with diabetes.
Your dentist can save your oral health
An interesting study involving 2.5 million people found that adults with diabetes are less likely to visit the dentist than those with pre-diabetes or those who don’t have diabetes. Why is that? Part of the problem is undoubtedly cost, as unlike countries like the USA, where those with lower earnings can rely on Medicaid to cover emergency and preventive oral health care, few medical aid schemes in South Africa cover dental health. The report also found ethnic disparities and concluded that single people and men were less likely to visit dentists than those in relationships and women, respectively.
How often should diabetics visit their dentist?
Diabetics are advised to visit their dentist at least once a year Preventive care ensure that teeth are clean and plaque does not cause gum tissue to separate, form pockets, and eventually lead to tooth and bone loss. It’s a good idea to see your dentist right away if you have any signs of gum disease or dry mouth… Be on the alert if your gums are inflamed and bleed, which happens with gingivitus.
Because microbiomes are different for people with diabetes, inflammation and gum disease can be more likely. It is important to take proactive measures to battle gum disease and tooth decay through daily hygiene and regular dental visits. Also be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of the beginning stages of gum disease.
When last did you go to the dentist?